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Considering the hardships of that time this amounted to a death sentence for many, and cries of discontent rose as the population of Luoyang decreased sharply.
When Cao Cao attacked Xu Province , it was said that "hundreds of thousands of men and women were buried alive, even dogs and chickens did not survive.
The Si River was blocked. From then on, these five towns never recovered. The following table shows the severe decrease of population during that period.
From the late Eastern Han to the Western Jin dynasty, despite the length of about years, the peak population only equaled From the Western Jin dynasty to the Sui dynasty , the population never recovered.
High militarization of the population was common. For example, the population of Shu was ,, but the military numbered over , The Records of the Three Kingdoms contains population figures for the Three Kingdoms.
As with many Chinese historical population figures, these numbers are likely to be less than the actual populations, since census and tax records went hand in hand, and tax evaders were often not on records.
During the Three Kingdoms period — AD , a number of statuses intermediate between freedom and slavery developed, but none of them are thought to have exceeded 1 percent of the population.
While it is clear that warfare undoubtedly took many lives during this period, the census figures do not support the idea that tens of millions were wiped out solely from warfare.
Other factors such as mass famines and diseases, due to the collapse of sustaining governance and migrations out of China must be taken into account.
In the late Eastern Han dynasty, due to natural disasters and social unrest, the economy was badly depressed, leading to the massive waste of farmland.
Some local landlords and aristocracy established their own strongholds to defend themselves and developed agriculture, which gradually evolved into a self-sufficient manorial system.
The system of strongholds and manors also had effects on the economical mode of following dynasties. In addition, because of the collapse of the imperial court, those worn copper coins were not melted and reminted and many privately minted coins appeared.
In the Three Kingdoms period, newly minted coins never made their way into currency. Due to the collapse of the coinage, Cao Wei officially declared silk cloth and grains as the main currencies in In economic terms the division of the Three Kingdoms reflected a reality that long endured.
Even during the Northern Song dynasty , years after the Three Kingdoms period, it was possible to think of China as being composed of three great regional markets.
The status of the northwest was slightly ambivalent, as it had links with the northern region and Sichuan. These geographical divisions are underscored by the fact that the main communication routes between the three main regions were all man-made: the Grand Canal linking north and south, the hauling-way through the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River linking southern China with Sichuan and the gallery roads joining Sichuan with the northwest.
The break into three separate entities was quite natural and even anticipated by such political foresight as that of Zhuge Liang see Longzhong Plan.
Cao Cao , the founder of the Wei kingdom and his four sons were influential poets , especially Cao Zhi — and Cao Pi — Cao Zhi, together with Xu Gan , sponsored a resurgence of the Jian'an style of lyric poetry.
Cao Zhi is considered by most modern critics to be the most important Chinese writer between Qu Yuan and Tao Yuanming. The standard history of the period is the Records of the Three Kingdoms , compiled by the Western Jin historian Chen Shou in the third century CE.
The work synthesizes the histories of the rival states of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period into a single compiled text.
An expanded version of the Records of the Three Kingdoms was published by the Liu Song historian Pei Songzhi in , whose Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms supplemented the original with sizable excerpts of texts unused by Chen Shou and provided commentaries.
In addition to the Records of the Three Kingdoms , the years to are also covered by the previous standard history Book of the Later Han by Fan Ye a contemporary of Pei Songzhi , which mainly draws from documents of the Han court.
Traditional Chinese political thought is concerned with the concept of the " Mandate of Heaven ", from which a ruler derives legitimacy to rule all under heaven.
In the Three Kingdoms period, Cao Wei, Shu Han, and Eastern Wu all laid claim to the Mandate by virtue of their founders declaring themselves as emperors.
Later historians would disagree on which of the Three Kingdoms primarily between Wei and Shu should be considered the sole legitimate successor to the Han dynasty.
Chen Shou, the compiler of the Records of the Three Kingdoms , hailed from Shu Han and became an official of the Western Jin dynasty when he was working on the Records.
As Western Jin succeeded Cao Wei, Chen was careful in his compilation to imply Cao Wei was the legitimate state.
Despite the description of events being mostly balanced and fair,  Chen Shou legitimized Wei by placing the Wei annals first, using the era names from Wei's calendar, and reserving regal nomenclature for the leaders of Wei.
Specifically, emperors of Cao Wei are referred to by their imperial posthumous names eg. Chen Shou's treatment of the legitimacy issue was generally accepted through to the Northern Song dynasty.
Despite maintaining that none of the three states truly held the Mandate of Heaven since they all failed to unify China, Song historian Sima Guang used Wei's era names and thus affirmed the legitimacy of Wei's succession to Han in his universal history Zizhi Tongjian.
Numerous people and affairs from the period later became Chinese legends. The most complete and influential example is the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms , written by Luo Guanzhong during the Ming dynasty.
Possibly due to the popularity of Romance of the Three Kingdoms , the Three Kingdoms era is one of the most well-known non-modern Chinese eras in terms of iconic characters, deeds and exploits.
This is reflected in the way that fictional accounts of the Three Kingdoms, mostly based on the novel, play a significant role in East Asian popular culture.
Books, television dramas, films, cartoons, anime, games, and music on the topic are still regularly produced in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the time period in China. For other uses, see Three Kingdoms disambiguation.
Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history Women in ancient and imperial China.
See also: Timeline of the Three Kingdoms period. See also: Military history of the Three Kingdoms. Main article: Yellow Turban Rebellion.
Main article: Campaign against Yuan Shu. Main article: Battle of Red Cliffs. Main article: Shu Han. See also: Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign and Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions.
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Liu Bei eventually left Yuan Shao and established a new base in Runan , where he lost to Cao Cao again. He retreated south to Jing Province , where he found shelter under the governor, Liu Biao.
In , Dong Cheng, an imperial relative, received a secret edict from Emperor Xian to assassinate Cao Cao. He collaborated with Liu Bei and some other high ranking officials on this effort, but Cao Cao soon found out about the plot and had Dong Cheng and his conspirators executed, with only Liu Bei and Governor of Liang Province Ma Teng surviving.
With Liu Bei fleeing to join Yuan Shao in the north and Ma Teng returning to his own province. After settling the nearby provinces, including a rebellion led by former Yellow Turbans, and internal affairs with the court, Cao Cao turned his attention north to Yuan Shao, who himself had eliminated his northern rival Gongsun Zan that same year.
Yuan Shao, himself of higher nobility than Cao Cao, amassed a large army and camped along the northern bank of the Yellow River. In the summer of , after months of preparations, the armies of Cao Cao and Yuan Shao clashed at the Battle of Guandu near present-day Kaifeng.
Cao Cao's army was heavily outnumbered by Yuan Shao. Due to a raid in Yuan's supply train, Yuan's army fell into disorder as they fled back north.
Cao Cao took advantage of Yuan Shao's death in , which resulted in division among his sons, and advanced to the north. In , after the Battle of Ye, Cao Cao captured the city of Ye.
By the end of , after a victorious campaign beyond the frontier against the Wuhuan culminating in the Battle of White Wolf Mountain, Cao Cao achieved complete dominance of the North China Plain.
He now controlled China's heartland, including Yuan Shao's former territory, and half of the Chinese population.
Since , Liu Biao put Liu Bei in charge of Xinye , where Liu Bei visited Zhuge Liang thrice and recruited him as an adviser. He also built up his forces in preparation for war against Cao Cao.
Following his unification of central and northern China under his control, Cao Cao, having been appointed Imperial Chancellor by Emperor Xian, led his forces on a southern campaign to eliminate Liu Bei and Sun Quan.
In , although Liu Bei managed to repel two attacks by Cao Cao at Xinye, he was eventually forced to flee due to the overwhelming strength of the enemy forces.
Cao Cao and his cavalry caught up to Liu Bei's congregation at Changban, Dangyang, and Liu Bei had to flee for his life, galloping away south with Zhang Fei, Zhao Yun and Zhuge Liang, while leaving his family and the populace behind.
Cao Cao's forces captured most of the unarmed civilians and Liu Bei's baggage. In the chaos, Zhao Yun disappeared to the north, but he came back with Liu Bei's infant son Liu Shan along with Lady Gan.
Turning east from Changban, Liu Bei and the remnants of his party had crossed the Han River to the east where Liu Qi, Liu Biao's elder son, still held control of Jiangxia Commandery.
They met Guan Yu's fleet and over 10, men led by Liu Qi at Han Ford. Together, they sailed down the river to Xiakou. Cao Cao did not follow up in immediate pursuit.
The main objective of his drive to the south had been the base at Jiangling County, and he pressed on south to secure that base first.
In , After the Battle of Changban. Liu Bei sent Zhuge Liang to meet Sun Quan and discuss the formation of a Sun—Liu alliance to counter Cao Cao.
Sun Quan agreed and placed Zhou Yu in command of his army in preparation for war with Cao Cao. Zhuge Liang remained temporarily in Wu territory to assist Zhou Yu.
Zhou Yu felt that Zhuge Liang would become a threat to Sun Quan in the future and attempted to kill him on a few occasions but ultimately failed and ended up having no choice but to cooperate with Zhuge Liang.
The Sun—Liu forces scored a decisive victory over Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs. Sun Quan and Liu Bei started vying for control of southern Jing Province after their victory, but Liu won and took over the territories from Cao Cao's general, Cao Ren.
Sun Quan, unhappy over having gained nothing, sent messengers to ask Liu Bei to "return" the territories to him, but Liu dismissed the messenger each time with a different excuse.
Sun Quan was unwilling to give up, so he followed Zhou Yu's plan to trick Liu Bei to come to his territory and marry his sister, Lady Sun.
He would then hold Liu Bei hostage in exchange for Jing Province. However, the plan failed and the newlywed couple returned to Jing Province safely.
Zhou Yu later died in frustration after Zhuge Liang repeatedly foiled his plans to take Jing Province. Relations between Liu Bei and Sun Quan deteriorated after Zhou Yu's death, but not to the point of war.
Following Zhuge Liang's Longzhong Plan , Liu Bei led his forces westward into Yi Province and seized control of the territories from the governor, Liu Zhang.
By then, Liu Bei ruled over a vast stretch of land from Yi Province to southern Jing Province; these territories served as the foundation of the state of Shu Han later.
Liu Bei declared himself King of Hanzhong after defeating Cao Cao in the Hanzhong Campaign and capturing Hanzhong Commandery.
At the same time, Emperor Xian awarded Cao Cao the title of a vassal king — King of Wei — while Sun Quan was known as the Duke of Wu.
In eastern China, Sun Quan and Cao Cao's forces fought in various battles along the Yangtze River , including the battles of Hefei and Ruxu , but neither side managed to gain a significant advantage over the other.
Meanwhile, Sun Quan plotted to take Jing Province after growing tired of Liu Bei's repeated refusals to hand over the province.
He secretly made peace and allied with Cao Cao against Liu Bei. While Guan Yu, who guarded Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province, was away attacking Cao Ren at the Battle of Fancheng , Sun Quan sent his general Lü Meng to launch a stealth invasion on Jing Province.
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